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This is a personal project by @dellsystem. I built this to help me retain information from the books I'm reading. Currently can only be used by a single user (myself), but I plan to extend it to support multiple users eventually.

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101

Aesthetics of Singularity

21
terms
11
notes

about postmodern culture. hard to summarise but i really liked it

Jameson, F. (2015). Aesthetics of Singularity. New Left Review, 92, pp. 101-134

(noun) a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being / (noun) a particular theory about the nature of being or the kinds of things that have existence

101

Any ontology of the present needs to be an ideological analysis as well as a phenomenological description

—p.101 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

Any ontology of the present needs to be an ideological analysis as well as a phenomenological description

—p.101 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

make (something abstract) more concrete or real

102

on the one hand, they thematize reified features of a much more complicated social totality, and on the other, they demand functional interpretation in order to be grasped from an ideological perspective

classic Jameson speak

—p.102 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

on the one hand, they thematize reified features of a much more complicated social totality, and on the other, they demand functional interpretation in order to be grasped from an ideological perspective

classic Jameson speak

—p.102 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago
104

[...] I began to realize that it was globalization that formed, as it were, the substructure of postmodernity, and constituted the economic base of which, in the largest sense, postmodernity was the superstructure. The hypothesis, at that point, was that globalization was a new stage of capitalism, a third stage, which followed upon that second stage of capitalism identified by Lenin as the stage of monopoly and imperialism—and which, while remaining capitalism, had fundamental structural differences from the stage that preceded it, if only because capitalism now functioned on a global scale, unparalleled in its history. You will have understood that the culture of that earlier imperialist stage was, according to my theory, what we call modernity; and that postmodernity then becomes a kind of new global culture corresponding to globalization.

—p.104 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

[...] I began to realize that it was globalization that formed, as it were, the substructure of postmodernity, and constituted the economic base of which, in the largest sense, postmodernity was the superstructure. The hypothesis, at that point, was that globalization was a new stage of capitalism, a third stage, which followed upon that second stage of capitalism identified by Lenin as the stage of monopoly and imperialism—and which, while remaining capitalism, had fundamental structural differences from the stage that preceded it, if only because capitalism now functioned on a global scale, unparalleled in its history. You will have understood that the culture of that earlier imperialist stage was, according to my theory, what we call modernity; and that postmodernity then becomes a kind of new global culture corresponding to globalization.

—p.104 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

(noun) an ultimate end (from Greek)

104

Modernity, in the sense of modernization and progress, or telos, was now definitively over

—p.104 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

Modernity, in the sense of modernization and progress, or telos, was now definitively over

—p.104 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

a French philosopher (1859-1941), influential especially in the first half of the 20th century and after WWII in continental philosophy; known for his influential arguments that processes of immediate experience and intuition are more significant than abstract rationalism and science for understanding reality

105

the Bergsonian durée

he introduced durée as a theory of time and consciousness in his PhD thesis, as a response to Kantian ideas (I don't really know anything more)

—p.105 by Fredric Jameson
unknown
1 year, 5 months ago

the Bergsonian durée

he introduced durée as a theory of time and consciousness in his PhD thesis, as a response to Kantian ideas (I don't really know anything more)

—p.105 by Fredric Jameson
unknown
1 year, 5 months ago
106

[...] political and cultural commentators have returned to the ideal of modernity as something the West can successfully offer the underdeveloped parts of the world (euphemistically called ‘the emerging markets’) at a moment when modernization itself is clearly as obsolete as the dinosaur. For modernization, offered by the Americans and the Soviets alike in their foreign aid programmes, was posited on heavy industry, and has little relevance in an era in which production, profoundly modified by information technology and relocation, has undergone its own postmodern turn.

—p.106 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

[...] political and cultural commentators have returned to the ideal of modernity as something the West can successfully offer the underdeveloped parts of the world (euphemistically called ‘the emerging markets’) at a moment when modernization itself is clearly as obsolete as the dinosaur. For modernization, offered by the Americans and the Soviets alike in their foreign aid programmes, was posited on heavy industry, and has little relevance in an era in which production, profoundly modified by information technology and relocation, has undergone its own postmodern turn.

—p.106 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

(adjective) of, relating to, or constituting a portent / (adjective) eliciting amazement or wonder; prodigious / (adjective) being a grave or serious matter / (adjective) self-consciously solemn or important; pompous / (adjective) ponderously excessive

108

this portentous philosophical phrase or statement is not outside the work but inside it

on Damien Hirst's 'The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living'

—p.108 by Fredric Jameson
confirm
1 year, 5 months ago

this portentous philosophical phrase or statement is not outside the work but inside it

on Damien Hirst's 'The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living'

—p.108 by Fredric Jameson
confirm
1 year, 5 months ago
109

[...] In this new configuration, even the paintings of classics like Van Gogh or Picasso regain a new lustre; not that of their origins, but rather the novelty of widely advertised brand names.

on postmodernity, and how even museums--ordinarily symbolic of high art--have become mass entertainment

you could characterise this whole passage as snobby or elitist but he does have a good point (there's probably a DFW tie-in here as well: lots of people think of DFW as more of a shibboleth than as a real author)

—p.109 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

[...] In this new configuration, even the paintings of classics like Van Gogh or Picasso regain a new lustre; not that of their origins, but rather the novelty of widely advertised brand names.

on postmodernity, and how even museums--ordinarily symbolic of high art--have become mass entertainment

you could characterise this whole passage as snobby or elitist but he does have a good point (there's probably a DFW tie-in here as well: lots of people think of DFW as more of a shibboleth than as a real author)

—p.109 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago
113

[...] in the modernist texts the effort is to identify form and content so completely that we cannot really distinguish the two; whereas in the postmodern ones an absolute separation must be achieved before form is folded back into content.

might be a useful distinction one day, idk

—p.113 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

[...] in the modernist texts the effort is to identify form and content so completely that we cannot really distinguish the two; whereas in the postmodern ones an absolute separation must be achieved before form is folded back into content.

might be a useful distinction one day, idk

—p.113 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago
115

[...] no description of the postmodern can omit the centrality of the postmodern economy, which can succinctly be characterized as the displacement of old-fashioned industrial production by finance capital.

I follow Giovanni Arrighi in seeing the emergence of a stage of finance capital as a cyclical process: as Fernand Braudel memorably put it, ‘reaching the stage of financial expansion’, every capitalist development ‘in some sense announces its maturity’; finance capital ‘is a sign of autumn’. Arrighi’s three cyclical stages can then be summarized as: the implantation of capitalism in a new region; its development and the gradual saturation of the regional market; the desperate recourse of a capital that no longer finds productive investment to speculation and the ‘fictitious’ profits of the stock market. [...]

—p.115 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

[...] no description of the postmodern can omit the centrality of the postmodern economy, which can succinctly be characterized as the displacement of old-fashioned industrial production by finance capital.

I follow Giovanni Arrighi in seeing the emergence of a stage of finance capital as a cyclical process: as Fernand Braudel memorably put it, ‘reaching the stage of financial expansion’, every capitalist development ‘in some sense announces its maturity’; finance capital ‘is a sign of autumn’. Arrighi’s three cyclical stages can then be summarized as: the implantation of capitalism in a new region; its development and the gradual saturation of the regional market; the desperate recourse of a capital that no longer finds productive investment to speculation and the ‘fictitious’ profits of the stock market. [...]

—p.115 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

the study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation (adj: semiotic)

116

the proliferation of semiotic speculation as well, and of myriad concepts of the sign, the simulacrum, the image, spectacle society, immaterialities of all kinds

—p.116 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

the proliferation of semiotic speculation as well, and of myriad concepts of the sign, the simulacrum, the image, spectacle society, immaterialities of all kinds

—p.116 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

(noun) image representation / (noun) an insubstantial form or semblance of something; trace (plural: simulacra)

116

This is now second-degree abstraction with a vengeance, in which only the simulacra of things can be called upon to take their place and offer their appearance

—p.116 by Fredric Jameson
confirm
1 year, 5 months ago

This is now second-degree abstraction with a vengeance, in which only the simulacra of things can be called upon to take their place and offer their appearance

—p.116 by Fredric Jameson
confirm
1 year, 5 months ago

(noun) preponderant influence or authority over others; domination / (noun) the social, cultural, ideological, or economic influence exerted by a dominant group

116

the current hegemonic ideologies of language and communication

—p.116 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

the current hegemonic ideologies of language and communication

—p.116 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

relating to judicial proceedings and the administration of the law

118

something with a stable structure and a juridical status

—p.118 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

something with a stable structure and a juridical status

—p.118 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments

118

if the derivative shares this philosophical peculiarity with all forms of credit, it nonetheless represents something like a dialectical leap from quantity to quality

—p.118 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

if the derivative shares this philosophical peculiarity with all forms of credit, it nonetheless represents something like a dialectical leap from quantity to quality

—p.118 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

an act of subsuming

119

Marx’s fateful term, subsumption. Subsumption means turning heterogeneities into homogeneities, subsuming them under abstractions (which are by definition idealisms), standardizing the multiplicity of the world and making it into that terrible thing that was to have been avoided at all costs, namely the One as such.

—p.119 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

Marx’s fateful term, subsumption. Subsumption means turning heterogeneities into homogeneities, subsuming them under abstractions (which are by definition idealisms), standardizing the multiplicity of the world and making it into that terrible thing that was to have been avoided at all costs, namely the One as such.

—p.119 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago
120

[...] at the very heart of any account of postmodernity or late capitalism, there is to be found the historically strange and unique phenomenon of a volatilization of temporality, a dissolution of past and future alike, a kind of contemporary imprisonment in the present—reduction to the body as I call it elsewhere—an existential but also collective loss of historicity in such a way that the future fades away as unthinkable or unimaginable, while the past itself turns into dusty images and Hollywood-type pictures of actors in wigs and the like. Clearly, this is a political diagnosis as well as an existential or phenomenological one, since it is intended to indict our current political paralysis and inability to imagine, let alone to organize, the future and future change.

this is great

—p.120 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

[...] at the very heart of any account of postmodernity or late capitalism, there is to be found the historically strange and unique phenomenon of a volatilization of temporality, a dissolution of past and future alike, a kind of contemporary imprisonment in the present—reduction to the body as I call it elsewhere—an existential but also collective loss of historicity in such a way that the future fades away as unthinkable or unimaginable, while the past itself turns into dusty images and Hollywood-type pictures of actors in wigs and the like. Clearly, this is a political diagnosis as well as an existential or phenomenological one, since it is intended to indict our current political paralysis and inability to imagine, let alone to organize, the future and future change.

this is great

—p.120 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

a German philosopher (1859-1938) who established the school of phenomenology

121

think of postmodern futurities as compensations for a present time paralysed in its protentions and retentions (to use Husserl’s language)

heard of this guy before but never bothered to look him up

—p.121 by Fredric Jameson
uncertain
1 year, 5 months ago

think of postmodern futurities as compensations for a present time paralysed in its protentions and retentions (to use Husserl’s language)

heard of this guy before but never bothered to look him up

—p.121 by Fredric Jameson
uncertain
1 year, 5 months ago

the philosophical attempt to describe things in terms of their apparent intrinsic purpose, directive principle, or goal, irrespective of human use or opinion

122

The world financial market is mirrored in the world art market, thrown open by the end of modernism and its Eurocentric canon of masterworks, along with the implicit or explicit teleology that informed it.

—p.122 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

The world financial market is mirrored in the world art market, thrown open by the end of modernism and its Eurocentric canon of masterworks, along with the implicit or explicit teleology that informed it.

—p.122 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

doxa (grk)

a Greek word meaning common belief or popular opinion (the root of words like orthodox and heterodox)

124

inasmuch as these constitute the doxa or the widespread opinions of the current moment, I am certainly not immune to their influence and attraction

sorta defined (you have to assume)

—p.124 by Fredric Jameson
confirm
1 year, 5 months ago

inasmuch as these constitute the doxa or the widespread opinions of the current moment, I am certainly not immune to their influence and attraction

sorta defined (you have to assume)

—p.124 by Fredric Jameson
confirm
1 year, 5 months ago
125

[...] the modernists tended to express such principles in accents of anguish or pathos. Nietzsche’s battle cry about the death of God was their watchword, along with various laments about the disenchantment of the world, and various purely psychological accounts of alienation and the domination of nature. What distinguishes postmodern philosophy, in my opinion, is the disappearance of all that anguish and pathos. Nobody seems to miss God any longer, and alienation in a consumer society does not seem to be a particularly painful or stressful prospect. Metaphysics has disappeared altogether; and if the ravages to the natural world are even more severe and obvious than in the earlier period, really serious ecologists—the radical and activist kind—do something about it politically and practically, without any philosophical astonishment at such depredations on the part of corporations and governments, inasmuch as the latter are only living out their innate instincts. In other words, no one now is surprised by the operations of a globalized capitalism: something an older academic philosophy never cared to mention, but which the postmoderns take for granted, in what may well be called Cynical Reason. Even increasing immiseration, and the return of poverty and unemployment on a massive world-wide scale, are scarcely matters of amazement for anyone, so clearly are they the result of our own political and economic system and not of the sins of the human race or the fatality of life on Earth. We are in other words so completely submerged in the human world, in what Heidegger called the ontic, that we have little time any longer for what he liked to call the question of Being.

—p.125 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

[...] the modernists tended to express such principles in accents of anguish or pathos. Nietzsche’s battle cry about the death of God was their watchword, along with various laments about the disenchantment of the world, and various purely psychological accounts of alienation and the domination of nature. What distinguishes postmodern philosophy, in my opinion, is the disappearance of all that anguish and pathos. Nobody seems to miss God any longer, and alienation in a consumer society does not seem to be a particularly painful or stressful prospect. Metaphysics has disappeared altogether; and if the ravages to the natural world are even more severe and obvious than in the earlier period, really serious ecologists—the radical and activist kind—do something about it politically and practically, without any philosophical astonishment at such depredations on the part of corporations and governments, inasmuch as the latter are only living out their innate instincts. In other words, no one now is surprised by the operations of a globalized capitalism: something an older academic philosophy never cared to mention, but which the postmoderns take for granted, in what may well be called Cynical Reason. Even increasing immiseration, and the return of poverty and unemployment on a massive world-wide scale, are scarcely matters of amazement for anyone, so clearly are they the result of our own political and economic system and not of the sins of the human race or the fatality of life on Earth. We are in other words so completely submerged in the human world, in what Heidegger called the ontic, that we have little time any longer for what he liked to call the question of Being.

—p.125 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

(adj) relating to entities and the facts about them; relating to real as opposed to phenomenal existence (philosophy)

125

We are in other words so completely submerged in the human world, in what Heidegger called the ontic, that we have little time any longer for what he liked to call the question of Being.

—p.125 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

We are in other words so completely submerged in the human world, in what Heidegger called the ontic, that we have little time any longer for what he liked to call the question of Being.

—p.125 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago
125

[...] Postmodern philosophy is most generally associated with two fundamental principles, namely anti-foundationalism and anti-essentialism. These may be characterized, respectively, as the repudiation of metaphysics, that is, of any ultimate system of meaning in nature or the universe; and as the struggle against any normative idea of human nature. [...] It is generally identified by its adversaries—most of them modernists, even where they have spiritualist leanings—as relativism.

—p.125 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

[...] Postmodern philosophy is most generally associated with two fundamental principles, namely anti-foundationalism and anti-essentialism. These may be characterized, respectively, as the repudiation of metaphysics, that is, of any ultimate system of meaning in nature or the universe; and as the struggle against any normative idea of human nature. [...] It is generally identified by its adversaries—most of them modernists, even where they have spiritualist leanings—as relativism.

—p.125 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

(from Medieval Latin: breath of the voice) a term used by French philosopher Roscellinus (1050-1125), founder of nominalism; means a mere name, word, or sound without a corresponding objective reality

126

For the question of universals, which is also the question not of particulars but of singularities, was at the heart of the old medieval controversy around nominalism: and the latter asserted that universals were little more than words and verbal abstractions, flatus vocis, which had no relevance to the world of truly individual things and items, a world of singularities

—p.126 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

For the question of universals, which is also the question not of particulars but of singularities, was at the heart of the old medieval controversy around nominalism: and the latter asserted that universals were little more than words and verbal abstractions, flatus vocis, which had no relevance to the world of truly individual things and items, a world of singularities

—p.126 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago
128

Today we no longer speak of monopolies but of transnational corporations, and our robber barons have mutated into the great financiers and bankers, themselves de-individualized by the massive institutions they manage. [...]

something to think about more (the rest of the paragraph is kinda unnecessary tbh)

—p.128 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

Today we no longer speak of monopolies but of transnational corporations, and our robber barons have mutated into the great financiers and bankers, themselves de-individualized by the massive institutions they manage. [...]

something to think about more (the rest of the paragraph is kinda unnecessary tbh)

—p.128 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes

128

The end of the bourgeois subject has traditionally been framed in terms of the growth of the monopolies, the end of classical free enterprise, and the proliferation of what was once known as ‘organization man’.

—p.128 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

The end of the bourgeois subject has traditionally been framed in terms of the growth of the monopolies, the end of classical free enterprise, and the proliferation of what was once known as ‘organization man’.

—p.128 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago
129

[...] the systems of imperialism began to colonize the world in terms of the otherness of their colonized subjects. Racial otherness, and a Eurocentric or Americano-centric contempt for so-called underdeveloped or weak or subaltern cultures, partitioned ‘modern’ people from those who were still pre-modern, and separated advanced or ruling cultures from the dominated. With this moment of imperialism and modernity, the second stage of capitalism, a worldwide system of Otherness was established.

It will be clear, then, that with decolonization all that is gradually swept away: those subaltern others—who could not speak for themselves, let alone rule themselves—now for the first time, as Sartre famously put it, speak in their own voice and claim their own existential freedom. Now, suddenly, the bourgeois subject is reduced to equality with all these former others, and a new kind of anonymity reigns throughout world society as a whole. This is a good anonymity, which can be opposed with some ethical satisfaction to the bourgeois individualism whose disappearance we have hitherto greeted with such mixed feelings. Billions of real people now exist, and not just the millions of your own nation and your own language.

How can culture and subjectivity not be transformed, when opened to the vicissitudes of this vaster landscape and population which is globalization itself? No longer protected by family or region, nor even by the nation itself and its national identity, the emergence of the vulnerable subject into a world of billions of anonymous equals is bound to bring about still more momentous changes in human reality. The experience of singularity is, on this level, the very expression of this subjective destitution, one so often remedied by the regression into older group or religious structures, or the invention of pseudo-traditional ethnic identities, with results ranging from genocide to luxury hobbies. This dialectic, between egoism and pseudo-collectivity, carries within it at least one moment of truth, namely the radical differentiation—qualitative, ontological and methodological alike—between the analysis of individual experience and that of groups or collectivities. Both kinds of analysis share the dilemma of bearing on an imaginary object, one whose unity is impossible and whose stubborn endurance demands, on the one hand, a new ethic, and on the other a new politics. To project either of these impossible tasks is Utopian; to refuse them is frivolous and nihilistic. But it is the political dilemma we must face in conclusion.

man, he can be a pretty decent writer when he's not up in his Hegelian-Lacanian-etc clouds

—p.129 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

[...] the systems of imperialism began to colonize the world in terms of the otherness of their colonized subjects. Racial otherness, and a Eurocentric or Americano-centric contempt for so-called underdeveloped or weak or subaltern cultures, partitioned ‘modern’ people from those who were still pre-modern, and separated advanced or ruling cultures from the dominated. With this moment of imperialism and modernity, the second stage of capitalism, a worldwide system of Otherness was established.

It will be clear, then, that with decolonization all that is gradually swept away: those subaltern others—who could not speak for themselves, let alone rule themselves—now for the first time, as Sartre famously put it, speak in their own voice and claim their own existential freedom. Now, suddenly, the bourgeois subject is reduced to equality with all these former others, and a new kind of anonymity reigns throughout world society as a whole. This is a good anonymity, which can be opposed with some ethical satisfaction to the bourgeois individualism whose disappearance we have hitherto greeted with such mixed feelings. Billions of real people now exist, and not just the millions of your own nation and your own language.

How can culture and subjectivity not be transformed, when opened to the vicissitudes of this vaster landscape and population which is globalization itself? No longer protected by family or region, nor even by the nation itself and its national identity, the emergence of the vulnerable subject into a world of billions of anonymous equals is bound to bring about still more momentous changes in human reality. The experience of singularity is, on this level, the very expression of this subjective destitution, one so often remedied by the regression into older group or religious structures, or the invention of pseudo-traditional ethnic identities, with results ranging from genocide to luxury hobbies. This dialectic, between egoism and pseudo-collectivity, carries within it at least one moment of truth, namely the radical differentiation—qualitative, ontological and methodological alike—between the analysis of individual experience and that of groups or collectivities. Both kinds of analysis share the dilemma of bearing on an imaginary object, one whose unity is impossible and whose stubborn endurance demands, on the one hand, a new ethic, and on the other a new politics. To project either of these impossible tasks is Utopian; to refuse them is frivolous and nihilistic. But it is the political dilemma we must face in conclusion.

man, he can be a pretty decent writer when he's not up in his Hegelian-Lacanian-etc clouds

—p.129 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

(adj) of lower status; (noun) an officer in the British army below the rank of captain, especially a second lieutenant

129

underdeveloped or weak or subaltern cultures,

—p.129 by Fredric Jameson
confirm
1 year, 5 months ago

underdeveloped or weak or subaltern cultures,

—p.129 by Fredric Jameson
confirm
1 year, 5 months ago

(noun) a change or variation occurring in the course of something; successive, alternating, or changing phases or conditions, as of life or fortune; ups and downs

129

How can culture and subjectivity not be transformed, when opened to the vicissitudes of this vaster landscape and population which is globalization itself?

—p.129 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

How can culture and subjectivity not be transformed, when opened to the vicissitudes of this vaster landscape and population which is globalization itself?

—p.129 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago
130

[...] Postmodern politics is essentially a matter of land grabs, on a local as well as global scale. Whether you think of the issue of Palestine or of gentrification and zoning in American small towns, it is that peculiar and imaginary thing called private property in land which is at stake. The land is not only an object of struggle between the classes, between rich and poor; it defines their very existence and the separation between them. Capitalism began with enclosure and with the occupation of the Aztec and Inca empires; and it is ending with foreclosure and dispossession, with homelessness on the individual as well as the collective level, and with the unemployment dictated by austerity and outsourcing, the abandonment of factories and rustbelts. [...]

I don't know if I agree fully but this paragraph has a certain poetry in it

—p.130 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

[...] Postmodern politics is essentially a matter of land grabs, on a local as well as global scale. Whether you think of the issue of Palestine or of gentrification and zoning in American small towns, it is that peculiar and imaginary thing called private property in land which is at stake. The land is not only an object of struggle between the classes, between rich and poor; it defines their very existence and the separation between them. Capitalism began with enclosure and with the occupation of the Aztec and Inca empires; and it is ending with foreclosure and dispossession, with homelessness on the individual as well as the collective level, and with the unemployment dictated by austerity and outsourcing, the abandonment of factories and rustbelts. [...]

I don't know if I agree fully but this paragraph has a certain poetry in it

—p.130 by Fredric Jameson 1 year, 5 months ago

(adjective) of, relating to, or characteristic of Hegel, his philosophy, or his dialectic method / (noun) a follower of Hegel; an adherent of Hegelianism

131

they functioned as vanishing mediators—destructive operations which, by some Hegelian ruse of history, clear the terrain for new and unexpected developments

—p.131 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

they functioned as vanishing mediators—destructive operations which, by some Hegelian ruse of history, clear the terrain for new and unexpected developments

—p.131 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871. Following the defeat of Emperor Napoleon III in September 1870, the French Second Empire collapsed, and the French Third Republic rose up in its place (initially intended as a provisional government but it ended up lasting until 1940) to continue the war with Prussia, which resulted in a 4-month-long siege of Paris (ending Jan 28), which laid the groundwork for the Commune

132

Space separates as much as it unites: the Paris Commune was not able to draw the essentially agricultural lands of Versailles into its revolutionary orbit.

—p.132 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago

Space separates as much as it unites: the Paris Commune was not able to draw the essentially agricultural lands of Versailles into its revolutionary orbit.

—p.132 by Fredric Jameson
notable
1 year, 5 months ago