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105

Domination, Liberation

19
terms
13
notes

Lordon, F. (2014). Domination, Liberation. In Lordon, F. Willing Slaves of Capital: Spinoza and Marx on Desire. Verso, pp. 105-223

109

The main stake of domination is distributive. To mix Weber’s language with Spinoza’s, one could say that its object is the distribution of the chances for joy. To put it this way is to point out both how far the spectrum of the joys of employment extends beyond the purely monetary – job titles, recognition, friendly socialising at work – and simultaneously how relatively narrow it is, limited to only those things that employees could in principle strive after in the context of their professional lives, not to mention outside it. The dominant distributive regulation that produces these adjusted desires and convinces the dominated that beyond these limits their ambitions are hopeless therefore requires, lest it degenerate into frustration, a continuous work of enchantment whose purpose is to persuade employees that their humble joys are ‘really’ great joys, in any case perfectly sufficient joys – for them. This work is all the more necessary since it must contend with the excesses of envy that the spectacle of the social world incessantly stokes and the imatatio affectuum that this spectacle never fails to induce: visibly, the great enjoy having certain things, which must therefore be very desirable, thus subject to the imitation of desire. Symbolic violence consists then properly speaking in the production of a double imaginary, the imaginary of fulfilment, which makes the humble joys to which the dominated are assigned appear sufficient, and the imaginary of powerlessness, which convinces them to renounce any greater ones to which they might aspire. [...]

most notably, the joy of doing something you believe in

—p.109 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

The main stake of domination is distributive. To mix Weber’s language with Spinoza’s, one could say that its object is the distribution of the chances for joy. To put it this way is to point out both how far the spectrum of the joys of employment extends beyond the purely monetary – job titles, recognition, friendly socialising at work – and simultaneously how relatively narrow it is, limited to only those things that employees could in principle strive after in the context of their professional lives, not to mention outside it. The dominant distributive regulation that produces these adjusted desires and convinces the dominated that beyond these limits their ambitions are hopeless therefore requires, lest it degenerate into frustration, a continuous work of enchantment whose purpose is to persuade employees that their humble joys are ‘really’ great joys, in any case perfectly sufficient joys – for them. This work is all the more necessary since it must contend with the excesses of envy that the spectacle of the social world incessantly stokes and the imatatio affectuum that this spectacle never fails to induce: visibly, the great enjoy having certain things, which must therefore be very desirable, thus subject to the imitation of desire. Symbolic violence consists then properly speaking in the production of a double imaginary, the imaginary of fulfilment, which makes the humble joys to which the dominated are assigned appear sufficient, and the imaginary of powerlessness, which convinces them to renounce any greater ones to which they might aspire. [...]

most notably, the joy of doing something you believe in

—p.109 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago
112

[...] With the eras of aristocratic and plutocratic legitimacy gone (at least in their pure forms), the contemporary mythogenesis of the university degree, as Bourdieu repeatedly insisted, struggles to hide its own indifference to content and its only true mission, which is to certify ‘elites’, namely, to provide alibis to the distribution of individuals within the social division of desire.

this aligns quite nicely with Piketty's views on meritocracy (note 2102)

—p.112 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

[...] With the eras of aristocratic and plutocratic legitimacy gone (at least in their pure forms), the contemporary mythogenesis of the university degree, as Bourdieu repeatedly insisted, struggles to hide its own indifference to content and its only true mission, which is to certify ‘elites’, namely, to provide alibis to the distribution of individuals within the social division of desire.

this aligns quite nicely with Piketty's views on meritocracy (note 2102)

—p.112 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

I think this just means fate. Can also mean: utterance, declaration, proclamation, prediction

112

as a fatum without a god

—p.112 by Frédéric Lordon
confirm
2 years, 8 months ago

as a fatum without a god

—p.112 by Frédéric Lordon
confirm
2 years, 8 months ago
113

[..] Life under the master-desire is exploited life. But in what sense exactly is it exploited? Probably not in the way Marxian theory imagines it. For exploitation in the Marxist sense of the term only makes sense in conjunction with a substantialist labour theory of value, according to which exploitation is the name of the capitalist appropriation of surplus-value, measured by the difference between the total product and the value-equivalent assigned to the reproduction of labour-power – what is paid out in wages. The definition of the value of the labour-power that must be reproduced is however among the most uncertain, and is in fact circular: instead of the objectively and independently calculated value of the labour-power that must be reproduced determining wages, the wages themselves indicate the actual value reserved for the reproduction of labour-power. The chief problem however is that in order to follow the Marxian definition of exploitation, one must accept a substantialist theory of value whose substance is the duration of abstract labour.

—p.113 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

[..] Life under the master-desire is exploited life. But in what sense exactly is it exploited? Probably not in the way Marxian theory imagines it. For exploitation in the Marxist sense of the term only makes sense in conjunction with a substantialist labour theory of value, according to which exploitation is the name of the capitalist appropriation of surplus-value, measured by the difference between the total product and the value-equivalent assigned to the reproduction of labour-power – what is paid out in wages. The definition of the value of the labour-power that must be reproduced is however among the most uncertain, and is in fact circular: instead of the objectively and independently calculated value of the labour-power that must be reproduced determining wages, the wages themselves indicate the actual value reserved for the reproduction of labour-power. The chief problem however is that in order to follow the Marxian definition of exploitation, one must accept a substantialist theory of value whose substance is the duration of abstract labour.

—p.113 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

philosophical and metaphysical theories of divine presence in which the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world

113

Figure of transcendence surreptitiously reintroduced in immanence

on the diff between Spinoza and Marx: value

—p.113 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

Figure of transcendence surreptitiously reintroduced in immanence

on the diff between Spinoza and Marx: value

—p.113 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

rotation of the hand and forearm so that the palm faces backwards or downwards

116

extrinsic value of serving as bulwark against pronatory chaos

defined in footnote by translator (refering to the "naked attitude of the conatus as the gesture of grabbing something"). kind of a cool use of the word

—p.116 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

extrinsic value of serving as bulwark against pronatory chaos

defined in footnote by translator (refering to the "naked attitude of the conatus as the gesture of grabbing something"). kind of a cool use of the word

—p.116 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

(noun) defensive wall

116

extrinsic value of serving as bulwark against pronatory chaos

—p.116 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

extrinsic value of serving as bulwark against pronatory chaos

—p.116 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago
117

[...] in the Marxian definition exploitation is precisely the capture of surplus-value by capital, which consists in depriving the employees of a part of the value they have produced. It is not however the dispossession from that part of value in itself that turns it into exploitation, but its private appropriation by the capitalist. Were the surplus-value handed over, not to the capitalist but to the enterprise under total internal democratic control of the employees, or more accurately to the employees collectively, who would still think of calling it ‘exploitation’? Yet formally the employees would still be personally deprived of the surplus-value as the difference between the total value and the value of the reproduction of their labour-power. The ‘objective’ calculus of the labour theory of value, which supposedly entails a finding of exploitation, would be maintained, without however leading to that conclusion. Therefore, if exploitation there is, it falls under a political theory of capture more than under an economic theory of value. [...]

—p.117 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

[...] in the Marxian definition exploitation is precisely the capture of surplus-value by capital, which consists in depriving the employees of a part of the value they have produced. It is not however the dispossession from that part of value in itself that turns it into exploitation, but its private appropriation by the capitalist. Were the surplus-value handed over, not to the capitalist but to the enterprise under total internal democratic control of the employees, or more accurately to the employees collectively, who would still think of calling it ‘exploitation’? Yet formally the employees would still be personally deprived of the surplus-value as the difference between the total value and the value of the reproduction of their labour-power. The ‘objective’ calculus of the labour theory of value, which supposedly entails a finding of exploitation, would be maintained, without however leading to that conclusion. Therefore, if exploitation there is, it falls under a political theory of capture more than under an economic theory of value. [...]

—p.117 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

pertaining to Karl Marx and ideas he explicitly explored in his writings; differs from Marxist in that the latter includes ideas developed by others in the same vein of thought

117

It is significant in any case that employees do not need to believe in the Marxian theory of surplus-value in order to feel exploited and engage in struggle.

—p.117 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

It is significant in any case that employees do not need to believe in the Marxian theory of surplus-value in order to feel exploited and engage in struggle.

—p.117 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

(noun) historically, a high government bureaucrat of the Chinese Empire OR a pedantic or elitist bureaucrat OR senior person of influence in academia or literary circles / (adj) deliberately superior or complex; esoteric, highbrow, obscurantist

118

university mandarins sign their names to publications for which their assistants provided the statistics

—p.118 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

university mandarins sign their names to publications for which their assistants provided the statistics

—p.118 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago
121

For this is indeed the task of capitalist epithumogenesis, to pull the legs of the employees, in all the senses of that expression. First, to get them to move, which means, returning to the basic significations of auto-mobility, to make them move themselves, and in the most mundanely physical sense: by getting them to put one foot before the other, as revealed by the striking spectacle of the daily migration towards factories and business districts, those large concentrations of capitalist passionate exploitation on which waves of conatus-vectors converge, aligned up to their correlation within the physical space of an underground train carriage, a great current of co-linearised powers of acting heading for the master-desire. [...]

great imagery here

—p.121 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

For this is indeed the task of capitalist epithumogenesis, to pull the legs of the employees, in all the senses of that expression. First, to get them to move, which means, returning to the basic significations of auto-mobility, to make them move themselves, and in the most mundanely physical sense: by getting them to put one foot before the other, as revealed by the striking spectacle of the daily migration towards factories and business districts, those large concentrations of capitalist passionate exploitation on which waves of conatus-vectors converge, aligned up to their correlation within the physical space of an underground train carriage, a great current of co-linearised powers of acting heading for the master-desire. [...]

great imagery here

—p.121 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

(noun) a falling off or away; deterioration / (noun) descent slope

121

as its own specific declension of bossing in general

—p.121 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

as its own specific declension of bossing in general

—p.121 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

(noun) a region uniform in environmental conditions and in its populations of animals and plants for which it is the habitat

124

The fact remains that the existence of such scandalous biotopes of autonomy from the common law of employment is to some extent an homage vice pays to virtue

referring to "creatives" (artists, etc) who function somewhat outside capital, or at least outside the confines of the organisation

—p.124 by Frédéric Lordon
confirm
2 years, 8 months ago

The fact remains that the existence of such scandalous biotopes of autonomy from the common law of employment is to some extent an homage vice pays to virtue

referring to "creatives" (artists, etc) who function somewhat outside capital, or at least outside the confines of the organisation

—p.124 by Frédéric Lordon
confirm
2 years, 8 months ago
125

[...] Does not capitalism, in conceding that abolishing the hierarchy and giving free rein to initiative and collaboration are the real requisites of productive creativity, embark on the road to the free association of workers, impelled by its inherent tendency? If indeed the artist is a possible and desirable avatar of the worker, and from capital’s own point of view, then the very idea of employment as a relation of hierarchical subordination is fundamentally called in question.

—p.125 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

[...] Does not capitalism, in conceding that abolishing the hierarchy and giving free rein to initiative and collaboration are the real requisites of productive creativity, embark on the road to the free association of workers, impelled by its inherent tendency? If indeed the artist is a possible and desirable avatar of the worker, and from capital’s own point of view, then the very idea of employment as a relation of hierarchical subordination is fundamentally called in question.

—p.125 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments

125

brings back a dialectical figure we had believed lost: that of capitalism’s self-transcendence out of its own contradictions

—p.125 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

brings back a dialectical figure we had believed lost: that of capitalism’s self-transcendence out of its own contradictions

—p.125 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago
127

The constitution of enterprising capitalist communities have had, so far, all the structures of the employment relation and the monetary economy with a division of labour in its favour. The question of how individuals enter into it is resolved rather simply: primarily under the effect of material necessity – not because they spontaneously want to join. [...] Assisted by all the structures of capitalist enlistment that affirm its right to capture, the master-desire views enlistment into its cause as self-evident and fails to even notice anymore its inability to pursue the enterprise, which exceeds its means of power, without the contributions of other powers that it variously obtains. For how many capitalist enterprises would remain if people were freed from material necessity? [...]

—p.127 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

The constitution of enterprising capitalist communities have had, so far, all the structures of the employment relation and the monetary economy with a division of labour in its favour. The question of how individuals enter into it is resolved rather simply: primarily under the effect of material necessity – not because they spontaneously want to join. [...] Assisted by all the structures of capitalist enlistment that affirm its right to capture, the master-desire views enlistment into its cause as self-evident and fails to even notice anymore its inability to pursue the enterprise, which exceeds its means of power, without the contributions of other powers that it variously obtains. For how many capitalist enterprises would remain if people were freed from material necessity? [...]

—p.127 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

(noun) a change or variation occurring in the course of something; successive, alternating, or changing phases or conditions, as of life or fortune; ups and downs

127

How will the lives of the enlistees in the enterprise turn out, will they be sad or joyful? That will be decided by the vicissitudes of the process of epithumogenesis.

—p.127 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

How will the lives of the enlistees in the enterprise turn out, will they be sad or joyful? That will be decided by the vicissitudes of the process of epithumogenesis.

—p.127 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago
129

[...] If the communist idea is essentially about equality, the question then is how to understand the nature of an equality that accompanies a substantial, recognised inequality among contributors, and does not deny the asymmetry of those situations where the force of an initial proposition objectively gives the other contributions an auxiliary character. One formulation of what we might call the communist equation could therefore be as follows: what form of equality can be realised under the legacy of the division of labour – and notably under the most onerous of its legacies, to wit, the primary separation between ‘conception’ and ‘execution’?

the example he gives involves the production of a play, where the playwright's contributions are inherently unequal to those of the electrician or costume designer or actor

—p.129 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

[...] If the communist idea is essentially about equality, the question then is how to understand the nature of an equality that accompanies a substantial, recognised inequality among contributors, and does not deny the asymmetry of those situations where the force of an initial proposition objectively gives the other contributions an auxiliary character. One formulation of what we might call the communist equation could therefore be as follows: what form of equality can be realised under the legacy of the division of labour – and notably under the most onerous of its legacies, to wit, the primary separation between ‘conception’ and ‘execution’?

the example he gives involves the production of a play, where the playwright's contributions are inherently unequal to those of the electrician or costume designer or actor

—p.129 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

(adjective) of, relating to, or constituting a grammatical case marking typically a relationship of possessor or source / (adjective) expressing a relationship that in some inflected languages is often marked by a genitive case / (noun) a syntactic construction in English in which possession is marked both by the preposition of and a noun or pronoun in the possessive case (as in “A friend of Bob's is a friend of mine”)

134

the goal of the radical liberation of work, understood as a genitive objective

—p.134 by Frédéric Lordon
strange
2 years, 8 months ago

the goal of the radical liberation of work, understood as a genitive objective

—p.134 by Frédéric Lordon
strange
2 years, 8 months ago

unable to be resisted or avoided; inescapable

135

the script of the ineluctable set for all eternity

—p.135 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

the script of the ineluctable set for all eternity

—p.135 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

(adjective) of, relating to, or dealing with phenomena (as of language or culture) as they occur or change over a period of time

137

the infinite complexity, synchronic as well as diachronic

—p.137 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

the infinite complexity, synchronic as well as diachronic

—p.137 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

an unfilled space; a gap (plural: lacunae)

137

a lacuna inscribed in the mind’s very nature as finite mode

—p.137 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

a lacuna inscribed in the mind’s very nature as finite mode

—p.137 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago
138

But the sequence of causes and effects is in principle fully compatible with change. Stars die that once shone; the earth that was calm suddenly opens up; hills that used to be part of the landscape collapse in an earthquake – and are no longer there. None of this, which can only be called ‘change’, is an exception to the laws of determinism, or requires the disruptive intervention of a freedom (but perhaps the defenders of novelty intend to appeal to the will of God). The same is true in the historical and social world, whose phenomena of both reproduction and transformation are likewise produced, namely, determined to occur by some or other causal sequence, even though, unlike dying stars and sliding hills, these sequences are the product of human action. For these actions are no less caused. And these causal sequences have no other motors than the conative energies and passions that steer them. Collective human life reproduces itself, or begins to change, solely as a consequence of the interplay of people’s inter-affections, or, to say this in the simplest way possible, out of the effect they have on one another, but always through the mediation of institutions and social relations.

kinda poetic

—p.138 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

But the sequence of causes and effects is in principle fully compatible with change. Stars die that once shone; the earth that was calm suddenly opens up; hills that used to be part of the landscape collapse in an earthquake – and are no longer there. None of this, which can only be called ‘change’, is an exception to the laws of determinism, or requires the disruptive intervention of a freedom (but perhaps the defenders of novelty intend to appeal to the will of God). The same is true in the historical and social world, whose phenomena of both reproduction and transformation are likewise produced, namely, determined to occur by some or other causal sequence, even though, unlike dying stars and sliding hills, these sequences are the product of human action. For these actions are no less caused. And these causal sequences have no other motors than the conative energies and passions that steer them. Collective human life reproduces itself, or begins to change, solely as a consequence of the interplay of people’s inter-affections, or, to say this in the simplest way possible, out of the effect they have on one another, but always through the mediation of institutions and social relations.

kinda poetic

—p.138 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago
143

[...] For Spinoza there is no power that is not immediately and fully actual. In other terms, there is no reserve in the Spinozist ontology. There is no unfulfilled or uneffectuated power that stands back, available for activation. Even when it can do very little, the conatus is always exhausting what it can do. [...]

for Spinoza, that's what complete immanence is

food for thought

—p.143 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

[...] For Spinoza there is no power that is not immediately and fully actual. In other terms, there is no reserve in the Spinozist ontology. There is no unfulfilled or uneffectuated power that stands back, available for activation. Even when it can do very little, the conatus is always exhausting what it can do. [...]

for Spinoza, that's what complete immanence is

food for thought

—p.143 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago
144

[...] the social landscape of capitalism has profoundly mutated. From the moment when, despite being ‘capital’s men’, top executives became employees, the original Marxian theory was in trouble. And this trouble kept on growing with what could be called the rise of management: the growing number of employees who partially crossed over symbolically to the ‘side of capital’.

What could it mean to ‘symbolically cross over to the side of capital’, when materially one does not in fact belong to the side of capital, other than that the affective composition of the individuals in question shifted largely to the joyful end of the scale, and they found themselves enthusiastically bringing their power of acting to the enterprise, that is, ultimately, aligning it with the desire of capital? Marxism’s trouble is aggravated by the fact that this crossing is not an all-or-nothing affair, but a matter of degrees that can be laid out in a continuum, going from the lowest – the sullen employee who does the least, and reluctantly – to the highest – those who, albeit instrumentally, devote the totality of their working life, at times their whole life, to the success of the enterprise. The landscape of class is therefore the double of the passionate landscape of employment, and fully reflects the history of its affective enrichments. It has lost the simplicities of its beginnings, and is blurred by the employment relation’s gradient of commitment, which in the final analysis is an affective gradient, a gradient of the employee’s joy (or sadness) at living the life of an employee. This is where Spinoza meets Marx – and changes him, for the transformation can be described synthetically by borrowing from the lexicons of both: to ‘symbolically cross over to the side of capital’ is to have a joyful ‘real subsumption’.

the "side of capital" phrase comes from this book

—p.144 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

[...] the social landscape of capitalism has profoundly mutated. From the moment when, despite being ‘capital’s men’, top executives became employees, the original Marxian theory was in trouble. And this trouble kept on growing with what could be called the rise of management: the growing number of employees who partially crossed over symbolically to the ‘side of capital’.

What could it mean to ‘symbolically cross over to the side of capital’, when materially one does not in fact belong to the side of capital, other than that the affective composition of the individuals in question shifted largely to the joyful end of the scale, and they found themselves enthusiastically bringing their power of acting to the enterprise, that is, ultimately, aligning it with the desire of capital? Marxism’s trouble is aggravated by the fact that this crossing is not an all-or-nothing affair, but a matter of degrees that can be laid out in a continuum, going from the lowest – the sullen employee who does the least, and reluctantly – to the highest – those who, albeit instrumentally, devote the totality of their working life, at times their whole life, to the success of the enterprise. The landscape of class is therefore the double of the passionate landscape of employment, and fully reflects the history of its affective enrichments. It has lost the simplicities of its beginnings, and is blurred by the employment relation’s gradient of commitment, which in the final analysis is an affective gradient, a gradient of the employee’s joy (or sadness) at living the life of an employee. This is where Spinoza meets Marx – and changes him, for the transformation can be described synthetically by borrowing from the lexicons of both: to ‘symbolically cross over to the side of capital’ is to have a joyful ‘real subsumption’.

the "side of capital" phrase comes from this book

—p.144 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

the opposite or counterpart of a fact or truth; the side of a coin or medal bearing the head or principal design

144

thus bringing back the obverse figure of the norm

not sure if he means norm in the vector sense or in the common sense

—p.144 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

thus bringing back the obverse figure of the norm

not sure if he means norm in the vector sense or in the common sense

—p.144 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

(noun) a marginal annotation or comment (as on the text of a classic by an early grammarian) / (noun) a remark or observation subjoined but not essential to a demonstration or a train of reasoning

146

We could mention in this context the scholium on diet, in which Spinoza recommends supplying the body with all the varied elements that correspond to the complexity of its structure

—p.146 by Frédéric Lordon
confirm
2 years, 8 months ago

We could mention in this context the scholium on diet, in which Spinoza recommends supplying the body with all the varied elements that correspond to the complexity of its structure

—p.146 by Frédéric Lordon
confirm
2 years, 8 months ago
148

[...] despite being individually experienced, there is nothing subjective about affects. They are objectively caused and they produce the movements of the conatus just as objectively. [...]

[...]

[...] Common affects do not fall from the sky; one must still ask what prior common affection produced them. In the present case it is rather on the side of capital that one must look, not so much capital as an antagonistic class – of which a solid core remains thoroughly identifiable, although its contours and periphery have become fuzzier – but capital as social relation, and ultimately as the very form of social life.

—p.148 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

[...] despite being individually experienced, there is nothing subjective about affects. They are objectively caused and they produce the movements of the conatus just as objectively. [...]

[...]

[...] Common affects do not fall from the sky; one must still ask what prior common affection produced them. In the present case it is rather on the side of capital that one must look, not so much capital as an antagonistic class – of which a solid core remains thoroughly identifiable, although its contours and periphery have become fuzzier – but capital as social relation, and ultimately as the very form of social life.

—p.148 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

make (something abstract) more concrete or real

149

its task would be to overturn capital (but capital as a reified social relation)

—p.149 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

its task would be to overturn capital (but capital as a reified social relation)

—p.149 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

the philosophical attempt to describe things in terms of their apparent intrinsic purpose, directive principle, or goal, irrespective of human use or opinion

149

a possible history of transcending capitalism – but an open-ended history, not yet written and without any teleological guarantees

—p.149 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

a possible history of transcending capitalism – but an open-ended history, not yet written and without any teleological guarantees

—p.149 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago
159

The end of the social relations of capitalism does not mean the end of our passionate servitude. It does not by itself free us from the disorderly violence of desire and the efforts of power. It is perhaps on this precise point that the Spinozist realism of the passions is most useful to the Marxian utopia: as a sobering-up. The extinction of politics by the final dissolution of classes and the conflict between them, transcending all antagonisms by the victory of the working class, that non-class without any class interest, are post-political phantasmagoria, perhaps Marx’s deepest anthropological error, which consists in dreaming of a final eradication of violence – when there is no horizon except the search for the least destructive ways of organising it. Spinoza makes the point that if all people were wise, namely, led by reason, they would need neither laws nor political institutions. But wise is precisely what they are not, which is why they have no choice but to take into consideration the passionate movements of the conatus, which, of itself, ‘is not opposed to strifes, hatred, anger, treachery, or, in general, anything that appetite suggests. Neither the recommune nor transcending capitalism liberates us from this element of violence, nor does it exempt us from reinventing institutional regulations for it. That is why, if we use the word to mean radical liberation, we must recognise that communism is a long patience, a continuous effort, and perhaps only, to speak again like Kant, a regulative idea. Let us not even mention, in keeping with the illusions of subjectivity, a liberation in the sense of the sovereignty of a perfectly autonomous ego. Passionate exo-determination is our irremissible condition. Let us also not dream of the final abolition of relations of dependence. It is impossible for the interest of one to never have to pass through another, and that no effect of domination would follow: love-interests, whether in erotic form or that of the desire for recognition, pass by their very nature through chosen others, individual or collective. These desires-interests, the very expression of the amorous logic of the conatus and of its passionate servitude, imperiously and at times violently cut a path for themselves, and neither transformations in the forms of ownership nor the generalisation of associative relations could fully disarm them. If true communism consists in living ex ductu rationis, it is better to recognise that it is a horizon and forego early the illusions of the radiant society.

—p.159 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

The end of the social relations of capitalism does not mean the end of our passionate servitude. It does not by itself free us from the disorderly violence of desire and the efforts of power. It is perhaps on this precise point that the Spinozist realism of the passions is most useful to the Marxian utopia: as a sobering-up. The extinction of politics by the final dissolution of classes and the conflict between them, transcending all antagonisms by the victory of the working class, that non-class without any class interest, are post-political phantasmagoria, perhaps Marx’s deepest anthropological error, which consists in dreaming of a final eradication of violence – when there is no horizon except the search for the least destructive ways of organising it. Spinoza makes the point that if all people were wise, namely, led by reason, they would need neither laws nor political institutions. But wise is precisely what they are not, which is why they have no choice but to take into consideration the passionate movements of the conatus, which, of itself, ‘is not opposed to strifes, hatred, anger, treachery, or, in general, anything that appetite suggests. Neither the recommune nor transcending capitalism liberates us from this element of violence, nor does it exempt us from reinventing institutional regulations for it. That is why, if we use the word to mean radical liberation, we must recognise that communism is a long patience, a continuous effort, and perhaps only, to speak again like Kant, a regulative idea. Let us not even mention, in keeping with the illusions of subjectivity, a liberation in the sense of the sovereignty of a perfectly autonomous ego. Passionate exo-determination is our irremissible condition. Let us also not dream of the final abolition of relations of dependence. It is impossible for the interest of one to never have to pass through another, and that no effect of domination would follow: love-interests, whether in erotic form or that of the desire for recognition, pass by their very nature through chosen others, individual or collective. These desires-interests, the very expression of the amorous logic of the conatus and of its passionate servitude, imperiously and at times violently cut a path for themselves, and neither transformations in the forms of ownership nor the generalisation of associative relations could fully disarm them. If true communism consists in living ex ductu rationis, it is better to recognise that it is a horizon and forego early the illusions of the radiant society.

—p.159 by Frédéric Lordon 2 years, 8 months ago

(noun) an ultimate end (from Greek)

160

But to forego the telos is not to forego every progress that can take place in its direction

—p.160 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago

But to forego the telos is not to forego every progress that can take place in its direction

—p.160 by Frédéric Lordon
notable
2 years, 8 months ago