a economic theory relating to the origin of capital (Adam Smith saw it as a peaceful process with natural imbalances in wealth distribution; Karl Marx saw it as a violent enclosure of the commons etc etc)
The transformation of non-wage labour into wage labour or of public services into capitalist realms of accumulation are specific forms of continuous primitive accumulation.
summarising David Harvey on Rosa Luxemburg
Through the process called primitive accumulation, pre-capitalist workers were uprooted from their land and dispossessed of their means of subsistence.4 Peasants struggled against this and continued to survive on the margins of the emerging capitalist world, and it eventually took violent force and harsh new legal systems to impose wage labour on the population. Peasants, in other words, had to be made into a proletariat.
Another mechanism that actively changes the size of the surplus is one we have already noted: primitive accumulation. This is not just an origin story of capitalism, but also an ongoing process that involves the transformation of pre-capitalist subsistence economies into capitalist economies.
Marx's account of so-called 'primitive accumulation' may be overdramatised and oversimpified but its essential truth is undeniable. Somehow or other the mass of a population has been put in a position of having to work for capital in order to live.
capitalism once again began to rely [...] on forms of accumulation by dispossession [...] that Marx once identified as typical forms of what he called 'primitive accumulation'. The commodification of labour, land and money