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This is a personal project by @dellsystem. I built this to help me retain information from the books I'm reading. Currently can only be used by a single user (myself), but I plan to extend it to support multiple users eventually.

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5

The CCP's Success Story?

12
terms
9
notes
Needs summary

Wang, C. (2015). The CCP's Success Story?. New Left Review, 91, pp. 5-38

according to Max Weber: the human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of violence within a given territory

7

Taking Weber’s definition of the state as ‘the exercise of a monopoly of legitimate violence over a given territory’

—p.7 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

Taking Weber’s definition of the state as ‘the exercise of a monopoly of legitimate violence over a given territory’

—p.7 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

(noun) the Marxist theory of history and society that holds that ideas and social institutions develop only as the superstructure of a material economic base

8

Historical materialism offered a way of making socio-economic sense of the country’s long past, and projecting it forward with purposefulness beyond any previous Chinese imagination.

—p.8 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

Historical materialism offered a way of making socio-economic sense of the country’s long past, and projecting it forward with purposefulness beyond any previous Chinese imagination.

—p.8 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

(noun) the Marxist theory that maintains the material basis of a reality constantly changing in a dialectical process and the priority of matter over mind

8

At the same time, dialectical materialism and the Leninist theory of the revolutionary party appeared to provide the best theoretical tool-kit for revolutionary strategy and modern social mobilization.

—p.8 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

At the same time, dialectical materialism and the Leninist theory of the revolutionary party appeared to provide the best theoretical tool-kit for revolutionary strategy and modern social mobilization.

—p.8 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago
9

[...] Once the PRC was established, the first generation of CCP leaders and cadres were always mindful of rural society, though this did not mean they were socially protective of it. The countryside was systematically exploited for industrial development, and little serious thought was given to the challenges of turning China’s vast peasant population into an urban working class. Neither economic analysis of modern capitalism and its internal contradictions, nor the inescapably long and winding path from immediate social mobilization to an ultimate future of equality and abundance, featured highly among Mao’s concerns after the CCP took power. [...]

—p.9 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

[...] Once the PRC was established, the first generation of CCP leaders and cadres were always mindful of rural society, though this did not mean they were socially protective of it. The countryside was systematically exploited for industrial development, and little serious thought was given to the challenges of turning China’s vast peasant population into an urban working class. Neither economic analysis of modern capitalism and its internal contradictions, nor the inescapably long and winding path from immediate social mobilization to an ultimate future of equality and abundance, featured highly among Mao’s concerns after the CCP took power. [...]

—p.9 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago
10

On the other hand, the two World Wars pushed both parties to recognize the appeal of nationalism. For the CCP, that meant adaptation to the social realities of local society, and protection of its own national independence within an internationally bonded alliance. For the CPSU, fighting Hitler under Stalin, it was time to disband the Comintern and rally Russian patriotism. This had broader implications than winning the war. When the Red Army’s victory over the Third Reich brought most of Eastern Europe into a socialist camp, these countries did not join the USSR as additional soviet socialist republics, but instead formed their own respective national states.

—p.10 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

On the other hand, the two World Wars pushed both parties to recognize the appeal of nationalism. For the CCP, that meant adaptation to the social realities of local society, and protection of its own national independence within an internationally bonded alliance. For the CPSU, fighting Hitler under Stalin, it was time to disband the Comintern and rally Russian patriotism. This had broader implications than winning the war. When the Red Army’s victory over the Third Reich brought most of Eastern Europe into a socialist camp, these countries did not join the USSR as additional soviet socialist republics, but instead formed their own respective national states.

—p.10 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

(noun) preponderant influence or authority over others; domination / (noun) the social, cultural, ideological, or economic influence exerted by a dominant group

12

China presents itself as a power that commendably eschews hegemonism, but the form its abstinence most frequently takes is either compliance with the existing hegemon—over the Iraq war, to take but one example—or pursuit of narrow self-interest—as with Sudan—and its relations with Third World countries remain strictly instrumental.

—p.12 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

China presents itself as a power that commendably eschews hegemonism, but the form its abstinence most frequently takes is either compliance with the existing hegemon—over the Iraq war, to take but one example—or pursuit of narrow self-interest—as with Sudan—and its relations with Third World countries remain strictly instrumental.

—p.12 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago
12

[...] Since the dissolution of the USSR and the end of the Cold War, we have not seen any comparable movements of working-class political militancy. Labour protests have not disappeared, but their aims are usually limited: defending wage levels or social benefits, without any horizon of political transformation. The threat of a ‘workers’ state’, of any kind, no longer exists.

—p.12 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

[...] Since the dissolution of the USSR and the end of the Cold War, we have not seen any comparable movements of working-class political militancy. Labour protests have not disappeared, but their aims are usually limited: defending wage levels or social benefits, without any horizon of political transformation. The threat of a ‘workers’ state’, of any kind, no longer exists.

—p.12 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s, associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost ("openness") policy reform

14

By that measure, the Soviet Union was still growing up to 1986, when Gorbachev launched his perestroika, and would not have been considered in economic crisis either

—p.14 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

By that measure, the Soviet Union was still growing up to 1986, when Gorbachev launched his perestroika, and would not have been considered in economic crisis either

—p.14 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

The State Planning Committee (Gosplan) was the agency responsible for central economic planning (particularly five-year plans) in the Soviet Union

14

Likewise, it is probably far-fetched to fault Khrushchev for not reforming Gosplan on time, leaving it to fossilize over the next twenty years.

—p.14 by Chaohua Wang
unknown
1 year, 11 months ago

Likewise, it is probably far-fetched to fault Khrushchev for not reforming Gosplan on time, leaving it to fossilize over the next twenty years.

—p.14 by Chaohua Wang
unknown
1 year, 11 months ago

(noun) the principle or aim of promoting unity among the world's Christian churches.

17

He declared, first, that democracy was imperative for the ongoing thought-liberation campaign to steer China’s course towards modernization, and second, that ecumenical unity should take priority over efforts to clarify past mistakes.

Deng Xiaoping in 1978

—p.17 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

He declared, first, that democracy was imperative for the ongoing thought-liberation campaign to steer China’s course towards modernization, and second, that ecumenical unity should take priority over efforts to clarify past mistakes.

Deng Xiaoping in 1978

—p.17 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

(noun) politics based on practical and material factors rather than on theoretical or ethical objectives

18

The report was primarily a product of internal realpolitik, blocking any real critical reflection on Mao’s record or that of the party under him.

—p.18 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

The report was primarily a product of internal realpolitik, blocking any real critical reflection on Mao’s record or that of the party under him.

—p.18 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago
19

We have seen that the primary force driving the changes after Mao’s death was a reaction against the Cultural Revolution. Yet this was never presented as a revolt against socialism. In both official discourse and popular understanding, the Cultural Revolution was treated as socialism gone wrong. Economically, the socialist revolution did not mean keeping people in poverty. Politically, it promised emancipation rather than the demagogic tyranny exercised by the ‘Gang of Four’. In a movement for the ‘liberation of thought’, calls for socialist democracy in the press both encouraged activists and benefited Deng in his struggles for power within the party. Since the international environment was no longer so hostile to China as in the fifties and sixties, while party cadres—not yet corrupted—were still capable of implementing directives, this should have been an ideal opportunity for the CCP to experiment with genuine socialism, with popular support and a whole generation of young people eager to participate in it.

unfortunately that didn't happen cus power corrupts etc

—p.19 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

We have seen that the primary force driving the changes after Mao’s death was a reaction against the Cultural Revolution. Yet this was never presented as a revolt against socialism. In both official discourse and popular understanding, the Cultural Revolution was treated as socialism gone wrong. Economically, the socialist revolution did not mean keeping people in poverty. Politically, it promised emancipation rather than the demagogic tyranny exercised by the ‘Gang of Four’. In a movement for the ‘liberation of thought’, calls for socialist democracy in the press both encouraged activists and benefited Deng in his struggles for power within the party. Since the international environment was no longer so hostile to China as in the fifties and sixties, while party cadres—not yet corrupted—were still capable of implementing directives, this should have been an ideal opportunity for the CCP to experiment with genuine socialism, with popular support and a whole generation of young people eager to participate in it.

unfortunately that didn't happen cus power corrupts etc

—p.19 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

(noun) the legal right of using and enjoying the fruits or profits of something belonging to another / (noun) the right to use or enjoy something

20

Socialist democracy, or people’s democracy, means that all of the people, enjoying various forms of ownership and usufruct of the means of production, have the overriding right to administer the state.

quoting Hua Guofeng

—p.20 missing author
uncertain
1 year, 11 months ago

Socialist democracy, or people’s democracy, means that all of the people, enjoying various forms of ownership and usufruct of the means of production, have the overriding right to administer the state.

quoting Hua Guofeng

—p.20 missing author
uncertain
1 year, 11 months ago

(noun) marsh swamp / (noun) a situation that traps, confuses, or impedes / (noun) an overwhelming or confusing mass or mixture

25

The change also left rural land ownership in a morass.

—p.25 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

The change also left rural land ownership in a morass.

—p.25 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago
27

Under the new leadership and its bureaucratically minimalist conception of ‘political reform’, a fast track was given to a bankruptcy law and a series of regulations to reduce the economic burden on SOEs by changing life-time job security in a planned economy to contract employment in a labour market. The ensuing sense of insecurity in urban population centres was then intensified by the abolition of price controls on a range of goods which, in an economy already overheating, pushed the rate of inflation to nearly twenty per cent, causing widespread panic and withdrawals from state banks. Zhao’s government wanted to convince the party and the public that the price adjustment of 1988 was urgently needed. But in looking at the benefits the changes would bring, it paid little attention to their costs or to where the burden would fall. Urban residents who bore the immediate brunt had every reason to feel they had been denied any political say in the reform process. The economic crisis of 1988 would become a major factor in popular sympathy for the Tiananmen protests a year later.

—p.27 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

Under the new leadership and its bureaucratically minimalist conception of ‘political reform’, a fast track was given to a bankruptcy law and a series of regulations to reduce the economic burden on SOEs by changing life-time job security in a planned economy to contract employment in a labour market. The ensuing sense of insecurity in urban population centres was then intensified by the abolition of price controls on a range of goods which, in an economy already overheating, pushed the rate of inflation to nearly twenty per cent, causing widespread panic and withdrawals from state banks. Zhao’s government wanted to convince the party and the public that the price adjustment of 1988 was urgently needed. But in looking at the benefits the changes would bring, it paid little attention to their costs or to where the burden would fall. Urban residents who bore the immediate brunt had every reason to feel they had been denied any political say in the reform process. The economic crisis of 1988 would become a major factor in popular sympathy for the Tiananmen protests a year later.

—p.27 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago
28

[...] The pivotal significance of Tiananmen, I would argue, lay in this: it relieved the burden of debt that Deng had owed to popular support since 1976. He could now proceed with a programme of reform that would pose no challenge to the party’s authority—especially not on the terrain of socialist principles. Tiananmen thus paved the way for China’s integration into the global capitalist system.

—p.28 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

[...] The pivotal significance of Tiananmen, I would argue, lay in this: it relieved the burden of debt that Deng had owed to popular support since 1976. He could now proceed with a programme of reform that would pose no challenge to the party’s authority—especially not on the terrain of socialist principles. Tiananmen thus paved the way for China’s integration into the global capitalist system.

—p.28 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago
31

Faced with continuous difficulties in urban and industrial reform after 1989, the country’s official media spent virtually a whole decade denouncing the ‘iron rice bowl’—secure employment and a steady wage—of workers in state-owned enterprises as an insurmountable obstacle to improvements in productivity. Under Jiang Zemin and Zhu Rongji, lifetime employment was wiped out by mass dismissals and limited-term contracts, with no compensating pensions, in one sector after another—manufacturing, energy, construction—leaving only party cadres and government personnel (whose ranks multiplied) untouched. Huge numbers in the urban population lost their jobs and wages, without the state so much as starting to think about—let alone deliver—a minimal safety net of social security for them. Layoffs amounted to more than 20 million in the 1990s. Over thirty years, an entire generation—or two—of China’s industrial working class was made victim to the reform process. For them, the net effect was no better than that of ‘shock therapy’ in Russia.

—p.31 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

Faced with continuous difficulties in urban and industrial reform after 1989, the country’s official media spent virtually a whole decade denouncing the ‘iron rice bowl’—secure employment and a steady wage—of workers in state-owned enterprises as an insurmountable obstacle to improvements in productivity. Under Jiang Zemin and Zhu Rongji, lifetime employment was wiped out by mass dismissals and limited-term contracts, with no compensating pensions, in one sector after another—manufacturing, energy, construction—leaving only party cadres and government personnel (whose ranks multiplied) untouched. Huge numbers in the urban population lost their jobs and wages, without the state so much as starting to think about—let alone deliver—a minimal safety net of social security for them. Layoffs amounted to more than 20 million in the 1990s. Over thirty years, an entire generation—or two—of China’s industrial working class was made victim to the reform process. For them, the net effect was no better than that of ‘shock therapy’ in Russia.

—p.31 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago
31

By contrast, in putting economic reform first (and last), the Chinese leadership focused on reducing the burdens of the state, breaking without any compunction the moral-political promises of the People’s Republic to its labouring classes and to society as a whole. Well before the inflation of 1988, at a time when Deng was cooperating amicably with Zhao, the central government was already drafting bankruptcy legislation, and schemes to marketize labour and housing, without worrying about popular opinion.

contrasting to the USSR--even after it collapsed, some social welfare programs remained

—p.31 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

By contrast, in putting economic reform first (and last), the Chinese leadership focused on reducing the burdens of the state, breaking without any compunction the moral-political promises of the People’s Republic to its labouring classes and to society as a whole. Well before the inflation of 1988, at a time when Deng was cooperating amicably with Zhao, the central government was already drafting bankruptcy legislation, and schemes to marketize labour and housing, without worrying about popular opinion.

contrasting to the USSR--even after it collapsed, some social welfare programs remained

—p.31 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago
32

What of the state-owned enterprises themselves? [...] Theoretically they belonged to the abstract collective of all citizens of the People’s Republic, and the state only ran them on behalf of the people. Nowadays they are known simply as firms owned by the state. Any link to the people, however nominal, has been severed. Many of the resultant SOEs have been sold at a vast discount to their managers or speculators [...]

—p.32 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

What of the state-owned enterprises themselves? [...] Theoretically they belonged to the abstract collective of all citizens of the People’s Republic, and the state only ran them on behalf of the people. Nowadays they are known simply as firms owned by the state. Any link to the people, however nominal, has been severed. Many of the resultant SOEs have been sold at a vast discount to their managers or speculators [...]

—p.32 by Chaohua Wang 1 year, 11 months ago

the postulate that markets are organised most effectively by private enterprise and that the private pursuit of accumulation will generate the most common good; accomplished by opening international markets and financial networks, and downsizing the welfare state

34

Was it merely due to the increasing sway of neoliberal ideology in the PRC?

—p.34 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

Was it merely due to the increasing sway of neoliberal ideology in the PRC?

—p.34 by Chaohua Wang
notable
1 year, 11 months ago

(noun) a compact instrument used to observe and calculate the position of celestial bodies before the invention of the sextant

37

Towards what horizon the mega-junk of the PRC is moving resists calculation, at least of any current astrolabe

quoting his Two Revolutions essay in NLR 2010, which this essay is a response to

—p.37 by Perry Anderson
uncertain
1 year, 11 months ago

Towards what horizon the mega-junk of the PRC is moving resists calculation, at least of any current astrolabe

quoting his Two Revolutions essay in NLR 2010, which this essay is a response to

—p.37 by Perry Anderson
uncertain
1 year, 11 months ago