Welcome to Bookmarker!

This is a personal project by @dellsystem. I built this to help me retain information from the books I'm reading.

Source code on GitHub (MIT license).

5
10
terms
4
notes

on the origins of the term "populism" & its inverse relationship to the term "the people"

D'Eramo, M. (2013). Populism without the People. In Left Review, N. New Left Review 82. New Left Review Ltd, pp. 5-30

7

[...] one may throw the term out the window, but others will continue to use and disseminate it. The alternative is precisely to regard its vagueness and self-contradictoriness as its defining characteristic. This was the route taken by Pierre-André Taguieff, for whom populism is a political style which ‘can shape diverse symbolic materials and be fixed in a multiplicity of ideological positions, assuming the political colour of its place of reception’. The same line is taken by Yves Surel who, in an essay on Berlusconi, argues that populism does not represent a coherent trend, but corresponds to ‘a dimension of the discursive and normative register adopted by political actors’. Populism, writes Ernesto Laclau, ‘is not a fixed constellation but a series of discursive resources which can be put to very different uses’, ‘floating signifiers’ that convey different meanings in different historical-political conjunctures. The idea that populism works when regarded as a certain kind of rhetoric, applied in different ways in different situations, is appealing—but in truth, merely registers its polysemy and returns it to sender. However, there is a third possible line of attack. It is this: populism is not a self-definition. No one defines themselves as populist; it is an epithet pinned on you by your political enemies. In its most brutal form, ‘populist’ is simply an insult; in a more cultivated form, a term of disparagement. But if no one defines themselves as populist, then the term populism defines those who use it rather than those who are branded with it. As such, it is above all a useful hermeneutic tool for identifying and characterizing those political parties that accuse their opponents of populism.

—p.7 by Marco D'Eramo 2 years, 10 months ago

[...] one may throw the term out the window, but others will continue to use and disseminate it. The alternative is precisely to regard its vagueness and self-contradictoriness as its defining characteristic. This was the route taken by Pierre-André Taguieff, for whom populism is a political style which ‘can shape diverse symbolic materials and be fixed in a multiplicity of ideological positions, assuming the political colour of its place of reception’. The same line is taken by Yves Surel who, in an essay on Berlusconi, argues that populism does not represent a coherent trend, but corresponds to ‘a dimension of the discursive and normative register adopted by political actors’. Populism, writes Ernesto Laclau, ‘is not a fixed constellation but a series of discursive resources which can be put to very different uses’, ‘floating signifiers’ that convey different meanings in different historical-political conjunctures. The idea that populism works when regarded as a certain kind of rhetoric, applied in different ways in different situations, is appealing—but in truth, merely registers its polysemy and returns it to sender. However, there is a third possible line of attack. It is this: populism is not a self-definition. No one defines themselves as populist; it is an epithet pinned on you by your political enemies. In its most brutal form, ‘populist’ is simply an insult; in a more cultivated form, a term of disparagement. But if no one defines themselves as populist, then the term populism defines those who use it rather than those who are branded with it. As such, it is above all a useful hermeneutic tool for identifying and characterizing those political parties that accuse their opponents of populism.

—p.7 by Marco D'Eramo 2 years, 10 months ago

the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts

8

it is above all a useful hermeneutic tool for identifying and characterizing those political parties that accuse their opponents of populism

—p.8 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

it is above all a useful hermeneutic tool for identifying and characterizing those political parties that accuse their opponents of populism

—p.8 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

when a word or phrase has multiple meanings (from Greek)

8

The idea that populism works when regarded as a certain kind of rhetoric, applied in different ways in different situations, is appealing—but in truth, merely registers its polysemy and returns it to sender.

—p.8 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

The idea that populism works when regarded as a certain kind of rhetoric, applied in different ways in different situations, is appealing—but in truth, merely registers its polysemy and returns it to sender.

—p.8 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

(verb) to protest or complain bitterly or vehemently; rail

10

Le Peuple inveighs against those well-born writers who deign to leave their salons only to describe the tiny minority of delinquents that permits them to reinforce the police

—p.10 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

Le Peuple inveighs against those well-born writers who deign to leave their salons only to describe the tiny minority of delinquents that permits them to reinforce the police

—p.10 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

(adjective) not capable of being atoned for / (adjective) implacable unappeasable

10

Be assured, France will never bear any name but one in the mind of Europe; that inexpiable name, which is also its true and eternal one—the Revolution

quoting Jules Michelet in Le Peuple

—p.10 missing author
confirm
2 years, 10 months ago

Be assured, France will never bear any name but one in the mind of Europe; that inexpiable name, which is also its true and eternal one—the Revolution

quoting Jules Michelet in Le Peuple

—p.10 missing author
confirm
2 years, 10 months ago

songs of praise or triumph; things that expresses enthusiastic praise

10

It was entitled Le Peuple and offered a romantic paean to its subject.

—p.10 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

It was entitled Le Peuple and offered a romantic paean to its subject.

—p.10 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

(noun) a eulogistic oration or writing / (noun) formal or elaborate praise

10

went on to write an extended panegyric, before arriving at his real political objective

—p.10 by Marco D'Eramo
confirm
2 years, 10 months ago

went on to write an extended panegyric, before arriving at his real political objective

—p.10 by Marco D'Eramo
confirm
2 years, 10 months ago

an old car in a dilapidated condition

14

'scrapping’ the current leadership of his Democratic Party, relegating it to the role of an old jalopy

—p.14 by Marco D'Eramo
confirm
2 years, 10 months ago

'scrapping’ the current leadership of his Democratic Party, relegating it to the role of an old jalopy

—p.14 by Marco D'Eramo
confirm
2 years, 10 months ago
15

The central thesis of this study is that systematic use of the term populism is a post-war phenomenon which develops in exact proportion to the disuse of the term ‘the people’: the more peripheral the people in political discourse, the more central populism becomes.

kinda interesting. he does provide evidence for this, though i'm skeptical cus the underlying trend is (obviously) for more papers to be published every decade, and i'm not certain that he takes that into consideration

—p.15 by Marco D'Eramo 2 years, 10 months ago

The central thesis of this study is that systematic use of the term populism is a post-war phenomenon which develops in exact proportion to the disuse of the term ‘the people’: the more peripheral the people in political discourse, the more central populism becomes.

kinda interesting. he does provide evidence for this, though i'm skeptical cus the underlying trend is (obviously) for more papers to be published every decade, and i'm not certain that he takes that into consideration

—p.15 by Marco D'Eramo 2 years, 10 months ago

(noun) preponderant influence or authority over others; domination / (noun) the social, cultural, ideological, or economic influence exerted by a dominant group

19

His view of populism has been hegemonic in political science ever since.

Richard Hofstadter, who gave a keynote lecture at a 1967 conference at LSE on populism

—p.19 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

His view of populism has been hegemonic in political science ever since.

Richard Hofstadter, who gave a keynote lecture at a 1967 conference at LSE on populism

—p.19 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

(noun) a vote by which the people of an entire country or district express an opinion for or against a proposal especially on a choice of government or ruler

20

Not for nothing is the plebiscite, the institution most closely associated with populism—populists are regarded as quintessential supporters of ‘plebiscitary democracy’—the only one that retains a clear trace of its ‘plebeian’ origin (plebs: common people; scitum: decree)

—p.20 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago

Not for nothing is the plebiscite, the institution most closely associated with populism—populists are regarded as quintessential supporters of ‘plebiscitary democracy’—the only one that retains a clear trace of its ‘plebeian’ origin (plebs: common people; scitum: decree)

—p.20 by Marco D'Eramo
notable
2 years, 10 months ago
22

[...] Today, the choice offered the electorate is no longer that between right and left, but centre-right and centre-left. The distance between the two discourses emerged in the late 1990s when Arthur Schlesinger snapped back at Clinton’s increasing use of the coinage ‘the vital centre’, writing in Slate magazine:

When I wrote the book I named The Vital Centre in 1949, the ‘centre’ I referred to was liberal democracy, as against its mortal international enemies—fascism to the right, communism to the left. I used the phrase in a global context. President Clinton is using the phrase in a domestic context. What does he mean by it? His DLC fans probably hope that he means ‘middle of the road,’ which they would locate somewhere closer to Ronald Reagan than Franklin D. Roosevelt. In my view, as I have said elsewhere, that middle of the road is definitely not the vital centre. It is the dead centre.

—p.22 by Marco D'Eramo 2 years, 10 months ago

[...] Today, the choice offered the electorate is no longer that between right and left, but centre-right and centre-left. The distance between the two discourses emerged in the late 1990s when Arthur Schlesinger snapped back at Clinton’s increasing use of the coinage ‘the vital centre’, writing in Slate magazine:

When I wrote the book I named The Vital Centre in 1949, the ‘centre’ I referred to was liberal democracy, as against its mortal international enemies—fascism to the right, communism to the left. I used the phrase in a global context. President Clinton is using the phrase in a domestic context. What does he mean by it? His DLC fans probably hope that he means ‘middle of the road,’ which they would locate somewhere closer to Ronald Reagan than Franklin D. Roosevelt. In my view, as I have said elsewhere, that middle of the road is definitely not the vital centre. It is the dead centre.

—p.22 by Marco D'Eramo 2 years, 10 months ago
24

Secondly, ‘negative power’—that is, powers of prevention, surveillance and evaluation—has vastly increased. Nadia Urbinati has cited the ‘pervasive power of the market’ as perhaps the most influential modern negative power, due to ‘its ability to claim the legitimacy to veto political decisions in the name of supposedly neutral and even natural rules’. In recent years, the ‘independent’ central banks and the international financial institutions have significantly extended their exercise of negative power: the IMF, World Bank, WTO and European Central Bank evaluate and interdict national economic policies according to their own ‘expert’ priorities. The assessments of the ratings agencies, which are private entities in law, have a decisive impact on the lives of individual citizens. No Greek, Spaniard or Italian has ever elected the board of directors of Moody’s; yet whether that citizen will receive treatment for a tumour, whether her daughter will be able to go to university, may be determined by their call.

—p.24 by Marco D'Eramo 2 years, 10 months ago

Secondly, ‘negative power’—that is, powers of prevention, surveillance and evaluation—has vastly increased. Nadia Urbinati has cited the ‘pervasive power of the market’ as perhaps the most influential modern negative power, due to ‘its ability to claim the legitimacy to veto political decisions in the name of supposedly neutral and even natural rules’. In recent years, the ‘independent’ central banks and the international financial institutions have significantly extended their exercise of negative power: the IMF, World Bank, WTO and European Central Bank evaluate and interdict national economic policies according to their own ‘expert’ priorities. The assessments of the ratings agencies, which are private entities in law, have a decisive impact on the lives of individual citizens. No Greek, Spaniard or Italian has ever elected the board of directors of Moody’s; yet whether that citizen will receive treatment for a tumour, whether her daughter will be able to go to university, may be determined by their call.

—p.24 by Marco D'Eramo 2 years, 10 months ago

the ideology and thinking of French revolutionary syndicalist Georges Sorel: anti-individualist, anti-liberal, anti-materialist, anti-positivist, anti-rationalist, spiritualist syndicalism

30

the influence of Sorel in Serge's anarcho-syndicalist formation: the Sorelian notion of a moral elite, alien in Marxism, informed his belief that the direction of history 'depends to a very large extent on the calibre of individual human beings'

—p.30 by Marco D'Eramo
uncertain
2 years, 10 months ago

the influence of Sorel in Serge's anarcho-syndicalist formation: the Sorelian notion of a moral elite, alien in Marxism, informed his belief that the direction of history 'depends to a very large extent on the calibre of individual human beings'

—p.30 by Marco D'Eramo
uncertain
2 years, 10 months ago