Welcome to Bookmarker!

This is a personal project by @dellsystem. I built this to help me retain information from the books I'm reading. Currently can only be used by a single user (myself), but I plan to extend it to support multiple users eventually.

Source code on GitHub (MIT license).

30

[...] Receiving a lot of healthcare from the NHS does not really make people 'better off' than those who do not need that care (although the recipients would be a lot worse off if they had to pay for it privately). [...]

—p.30 Are the poor too expensive? (15) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago

[...] Receiving a lot of healthcare from the NHS does not really make people 'better off' than those who do not need that care (although the recipients would be a lot worse off if they had to pay for it privately). [...]

—p.30 Are the poor too expensive? (15) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
36
  • low and high earners should pay the same share of income in tax (a proportional system;
  • higher earners should pay a higher share of income in tax (a progressive system);
  • both should pay the same amount in tax (a regressive system).

They were also asked how state pensions and unemployment benefits should relate to their previous earnings--whether they should vary according to past contributions or likely need:

  • previous high earners should get more because they had paid in more, that is, they should be earnings-related;
  • they should get the same, through flat-rate entitlements;
  • previous low-earners should get more because their needs are greater, implying, for instance, that benefits should be means-tested.

options in a poll in the EU. it's weird cus i would support the last option (out of the last 3) and yet I know means-testing is a bad idea ... idk

conclusion: roughly evenly split between progressive and proportional, with the remainder supporting regressive

the other thing this example makes clear to me is that democracy itself is a great illustration of drift. the telos of having a democratic system is to produce a system that works. we use democracy as a heuristic because it seems like a reasonable one compared to others that have been tried. but there comes a time when we forget about the original purpose and start worshipping the structure. this idea that elections--as a symbol of democracy--are so incredibly important and pure and all that. when really democratic elections only "work"--that is, they only produce a system that works in the long run--if 1) you can trust people to vote correctly and 2) the options they are voting for are themselves optimal. elections should not be worshipped when we're living in an age that is essentially a hostile environment for democracy. when the average voter doesn't have all the information needed to make the right decisions and isn't truly empowered to make any important decisions. worshipping the idea of democracy as expressed through elections where one man = one vote will get you nowhere. you have to be able to modify the idea of democracy to fit the circumstances. you almost have to kill your heroes, actually

—p.36 Are the poor too expensive? (15) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
  • low and high earners should pay the same share of income in tax (a proportional system;
  • higher earners should pay a higher share of income in tax (a progressive system);
  • both should pay the same amount in tax (a regressive system).

They were also asked how state pensions and unemployment benefits should relate to their previous earnings--whether they should vary according to past contributions or likely need:

  • previous high earners should get more because they had paid in more, that is, they should be earnings-related;
  • they should get the same, through flat-rate entitlements;
  • previous low-earners should get more because their needs are greater, implying, for instance, that benefits should be means-tested.

options in a poll in the EU. it's weird cus i would support the last option (out of the last 3) and yet I know means-testing is a bad idea ... idk

conclusion: roughly evenly split between progressive and proportional, with the remainder supporting regressive

the other thing this example makes clear to me is that democracy itself is a great illustration of drift. the telos of having a democratic system is to produce a system that works. we use democracy as a heuristic because it seems like a reasonable one compared to others that have been tried. but there comes a time when we forget about the original purpose and start worshipping the structure. this idea that elections--as a symbol of democracy--are so incredibly important and pure and all that. when really democratic elections only "work"--that is, they only produce a system that works in the long run--if 1) you can trust people to vote correctly and 2) the options they are voting for are themselves optimal. elections should not be worshipped when we're living in an age that is essentially a hostile environment for democracy. when the average voter doesn't have all the information needed to make the right decisions and isn't truly empowered to make any important decisions. worshipping the idea of democracy as expressed through elections where one man = one vote will get you nowhere. you have to be able to modify the idea of democracy to fit the circumstances. you almost have to kill your heroes, actually

—p.36 Are the poor too expensive? (15) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
45

If we are looking for a reason for pressure on those with middle incomes, it is not at the bottom end we should be looking. Rather, it is at the top. If anyone got too expensive, it has, in fact, been the rich.

—p.45 Are the poor too expensive? (15) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago

If we are looking for a reason for pressure on those with middle incomes, it is not at the bottom end we should be looking. Rather, it is at the top. If anyone got too expensive, it has, in fact, been the rich.

—p.45 Are the poor too expensive? (15) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
114

[...] there is both continuity and change in people's circumstances from year to year. We do not live in a country where there is an annual lottery to determine at random who is rich and who is poor for the coming year regardless of where they started last year. But nor do people generally stay stuck in the same place. Those who start poor are more likely to stay poor the next year than those who do not, and those who start rich more likely to stay rich. But many in each group--and those in between--move up or down the income ladder each year.

—p.114 Good years, bad years (111) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago

[...] there is both continuity and change in people's circumstances from year to year. We do not live in a country where there is an annual lottery to determine at random who is rich and who is poor for the coming year regardless of where they started last year. But nor do people generally stay stuck in the same place. Those who start poor are more likely to stay poor the next year than those who do not, and those who start rich more likely to stay rich. But many in each group--and those in between--move up or down the income ladder each year.

—p.114 Good years, bad years (111) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
132

[...] Today, social housing--rented out at below market rates by councils and not-for-profit housing associations--is in many people's minds synonymous with housing people with low incomes. But it was not always like that--back in 1979, more than 30 per cent of people with incomes in the top half of the income distribution lived in social housing. By 2004, it was less than 10 per cent. Between those years, the supply of social housing available to let to new tenants each year dwindled--fewer new houses were built; property was sold off through the 'Right to buy', so that when occupants moved or died it was not available as social housing, and fewer tenants moved out of social housing or died.

didn't actually know that stat

—p.132 Good years, bad years (111) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago

[...] Today, social housing--rented out at below market rates by councils and not-for-profit housing associations--is in many people's minds synonymous with housing people with low incomes. But it was not always like that--back in 1979, more than 30 per cent of people with incomes in the top half of the income distribution lived in social housing. By 2004, it was less than 10 per cent. Between those years, the supply of social housing available to let to new tenants each year dwindled--fewer new houses were built; property was sold off through the 'Right to buy', so that when occupants moved or died it was not available as social housing, and fewer tenants moved out of social housing or died.

didn't actually know that stat

—p.132 Good years, bad years (111) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
138
  • they can act as disincentive to additional earnings;
  • they can give an incentive to behaviour that reduces reported income (including misreporting of circumstances to slip below particular thresholds);
  • they can lead to feelings of injustice, if those just below a threshold are treated much more favourably than those who are only slightly better off;
  • uncertainty about which side of a threshold someone will fall once all the calculations are done can add to barriers to access.

this section is specifically about students but those caveats apply generally

—p.138 Good years, bad years (111) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
  • they can act as disincentive to additional earnings;
  • they can give an incentive to behaviour that reduces reported income (including misreporting of circumstances to slip below particular thresholds);
  • they can lead to feelings of injustice, if those just below a threshold are treated much more favourably than those who are only slightly better off;
  • uncertainty about which side of a threshold someone will fall once all the calculations are done can add to barriers to access.

this section is specifically about students but those caveats apply generally

—p.138 Good years, bad years (111) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
157

The equity issue--and the challenge for polices in a range of years--is not simply of one fortunate generation versus another. It is about the advantages of the better-off half of baby-boomers compared toboth poor baby-boomers and to those members of younger generations who do not stand to inherit. It is one thing to be one of a small number of grandchildren of owner-occupiers living in the South East of England, and quite another to be one of a large number of grandchildren of tenants or even of owners in parts of the country with low house prices.

—p.157 The long wave (145) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago

The equity issue--and the challenge for polices in a range of years--is not simply of one fortunate generation versus another. It is about the advantages of the better-off half of baby-boomers compared toboth poor baby-boomers and to those members of younger generations who do not stand to inherit. It is one thing to be one of a small number of grandchildren of owner-occupiers living in the South East of England, and quite another to be one of a large number of grandchildren of tenants or even of owners in parts of the country with low house prices.

—p.157 The long wave (145) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
170

[...] while it makes sense to protect state pensions, better-off pensioners could contribute more through the tax system. But the politics of this are fraught--when George Osborne announced the end of the extra tax-free allowance for those aged over 65, it was instantly condemned as a 'granny tax'. Other proposals that might affect better-off pensioners often face objections where some low-income pensioners who would be affected are held up in front of them as a kind of political and fiscal human shield.

—p.170 The long wave (145) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago

[...] while it makes sense to protect state pensions, better-off pensioners could contribute more through the tax system. But the politics of this are fraught--when George Osborne announced the end of the extra tax-free allowance for those aged over 65, it was instantly condemned as a 'granny tax'. Other proposals that might affect better-off pensioners often face objections where some low-income pensioners who would be affected are held up in front of them as a kind of political and fiscal human shield.

—p.170 The long wave (145) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
172

Up to a basic level, it can be argued that there are public benefits from encouraging pension saving, as otherwise the state and taxpayer could end up having to do more of the job. But tax relief is worth most to the highest paid and goes disporportionately to them. For instance, a higher rate taxpayer putting £1,000 into a pension pot at age 40, and paying basic rate tax in retirement, would get an eventual net return back of £5,500, compared to only £4,150 for a basic rate taxpayer, of £3,900 if either had invested in a tax-free ISA getting the same underlying return on investment.

didn't really consider this angle before, good point

—p.172 The long wave (145) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago

Up to a basic level, it can be argued that there are public benefits from encouraging pension saving, as otherwise the state and taxpayer could end up having to do more of the job. But tax relief is worth most to the highest paid and goes disporportionately to them. For instance, a higher rate taxpayer putting £1,000 into a pension pot at age 40, and paying basic rate tax in retirement, would get an eventual net return back of £5,500, compared to only £4,150 for a basic rate taxpayer, of £3,900 if either had invested in a tax-free ISA getting the same underlying return on investment.

didn't really consider this angle before, good point

—p.172 The long wave (145) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago
178

[...] The issue is not just between a lucky generation of baby-boomers now approaching retirement who got the best pension deals and benefited most from the house price boom, and a younger 'jilted generation' who have little. Many baby boomers have little wealth, and only a minority enough to see them through retirement without state pensions playing a major role. And a significant proportion of younger people stand to gain a great deal from inheritance and lifetime help from parents and grandparents. The conflict of interest is ultimately between the more affluent half of the baby-boom generation and poorer members of their own generation and younger households with the 'wrong' relatives, for whom advantage will not cascade down the generations.

the whole idea of young people being 'helped' by their parents has a lot to do with wage suppression and rising (rentier-led) inequality, which makes the idea that parents are graciously supporting their kids a bit dubious to say the least ... a little bit disappointed that he didn't go more into why the younger generation isn't doing so well, cough neoliberalism (or maybe he did and i can't remember idk)

—p.178 The long wave (145) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago

[...] The issue is not just between a lucky generation of baby-boomers now approaching retirement who got the best pension deals and benefited most from the house price boom, and a younger 'jilted generation' who have little. Many baby boomers have little wealth, and only a minority enough to see them through retirement without state pensions playing a major role. And a significant proportion of younger people stand to gain a great deal from inheritance and lifetime help from parents and grandparents. The conflict of interest is ultimately between the more affluent half of the baby-boom generation and poorer members of their own generation and younger households with the 'wrong' relatives, for whom advantage will not cascade down the generations.

the whole idea of young people being 'helped' by their parents has a lot to do with wage suppression and rising (rentier-led) inequality, which makes the idea that parents are graciously supporting their kids a bit dubious to say the least ... a little bit disappointed that he didn't go more into why the younger generation isn't doing so well, cough neoliberalism (or maybe he did and i can't remember idk)

—p.178 The long wave (145) by John Hills 1 year, 3 months ago